Machine learning simply refers to learning by machines. It is a fast emerging branch of computing.
When a computer modifies its response to the environment based on its deductions from a previous experience, it’s called machine learning. It is the artificial intelligence that enables computers to do machine learning. AI includes a host of different computing technologies that allow the computer to become smarter. So machine learning may be considered as a subset of AI.
The name machine learning is the contribution of Arthur Samuel. It was based on his suggestion that instead of coding for every possible situation that a computer would face, it would be possible to give the computer the ability to learn from the situations and form its own responses.
Advancements made in neural networks made possible a breakthrough in teaching computers to observe the world, understand it and respond in a human-like manner. Scientists believe that if the computer can be taught to think like humans, the inherent advantages of the machines like speed, accuracy, and lack of bias will make it superior.
A neural network mimics human neural functions by classifying information the way the human brain works. It can learn to recognize images and classify them. Working on a system of probability, the computer is able to analyze data, help with regularization, make decisions, and predict the possibilities to a certain degree of certainty. The vital difference between the ordinary computer and the AI one is that the latter learn by remembering its earlier decisions and the feedback it receives.
Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications seek to understand human verbal and written communication and respond in the same manner through speech or written words.
Machine learning makes a possible analysis of big data. It is usually fast and accurate and helps to identify profitable opportunities or risks. But it might need more resources and time to train it. A combination of machine learning, AI, and cognitive technologies makes the processing of large volumes of information possible.